Editor's Note: In November 2013, Teachstone attended NAEYC's annual conference. One presentation stood out more than others—a research project investigating the use of CLASS and The Project Approach. A veteran Head Start teacher told true classroom stories about how his class changed while implementing CLASS Instructional Support within the Project Approach framework. Teachstone recently reconnected with the researchers leading the study to check in on its progress. This blog series, written by guest blogger Carol Bolz and her colleagues, tells the story of this project and recounts key classroom anecdotes that highlight the powerful pairing of the Project Approach implementation bolstered by effective CLASS interactions.
|The Tree Graph Story|
"Preschool children involved in a long-term investigation of trees were invited by their teacher to survey and tally the trees in their yards at home. The teacher conferred with his Head Start coach about next steps. The two knew that the children had experience with comparing quantities using graphs, and wondered what the children would do if they were challenged to create their own graph based on their tree surveys.
The teacher gathered a core group of six children and got them started by asking how they would represent their trees on the graph. The children jumped right in and started making stacks of circles on a large blank piece of paper. When the teacher asked them to compare the number of trees, the children struggled. The teacher referred the children to their past experiences with graphs to get them thinking about solutions. As the children worked together, they figured out that a line at the bottom of the graph was needed. Using a fresh piece of paper, the children drew circles moving up from the baseline, and wrote their names to identify their own tree counts. The children seemed pleased with their efforts and the teacher acknowledged it was easier to compare the number of trees on the new graph. Then the teacher noticed, “Luke has four trees and Israel has four trees but on our graph, it looks like Israel has more trees.” Israel worked alone and drew a simpler graph with only two stacks of circles, one stack for his four trees and the other for Luke’s four trees. Since he made the circles the same size, he seemed satisfied with the results and told the teacher, 'Now they look like the same.'"
This story was shared with a group of coaches at Mid-America Head Start and their community partners from local universities who met monthly to collaborate on their own professional development. The coaching community of practice had been inquiring into strategies for supporting teachers with the sort of teacher-child interactions that are described in the Instructional Support Domain of the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS). The inquiry evolved into a research project where the group spent the first year of the project providing weekly, individualized, classroom-based coaching to teachers. The coaches engaged teachers in side-by-side analysis of video of teaching practice using the CLASS Instructional Support Domain as a framework. Teachers were invited to set goals for improving their interactions and coaches provided support toward achieving these goals. One of the community partners, Dr. Catherine Wilson, a roving member of the group, met with individual and small groups of coaches, and brought attention to their important discoveries. Another community partner, Dr. Sue Vartuli, identified measures, including CLASS scores, and collected pre- and post-test data to evaluate the effectiveness of the coaching.
The data from the first year of coaching was promising, with significant improvements in CLASS scores, but the coaches felt that more was needed to improve classroom practices. They thought that teacher-child interactions might be further enhanced if they were embedded in a more sustained and integrated set of learning opportunities. Therefore, the coaches turned to the Project Approach as a context for effective instructional interactions. With this decision, a Project Approach Fidelity was created to highlight essential features of the Project Approach, and measure adherence to and meaningful interactions using this curriculum framework.
Lilian Katz, Sylvia Chard, and Judy Harris-Helm, three experts in the field of early childhood education who have written and trained extensively on project-based learning for young children, define projects as in-depth investigations of worth-while topics and describe and identify the development of intellectual dispositions as the goal of project work. This emphasis on intellectual development seemed to the coaching community of practice to connect well with the focus on higher-order thinking and language development from the CLASS Instructional Support Domain. The coaches and their community partners believed that project work would provoke children and teachers to think, talk, and learn together.
Chard (1998) describes three phases of the Project Approach.
The Mid-America Head Start coaches and their community partners believed that work in each of these phases of the Project Approach would provoke children and teachers to think, talk, and learn together.
By pairing the CLASS data and the Project Approach, teachers and coaches learned new ways of being with children and the coaches observed a beneficial coherence among experiences had been created. Everyone was immersed in the same process of learning. Children, supported by teachers, investigated real-world topics. Teachers, supported by coaches, researched engaging learning experiences and interactions with children. Coaches, supported by community partners, continued to inquire into effective strategies for teacher development. At all levels, communities of learners and practitioners were thinking, figuring it out together.
Throughout the project, there were many examples of meaningful interactions and experiences when teachers were coached to facilitate project work. Children investigated real-world topics such as birds in their neighborhood, tools used by workers, shoes and shoe stores, the people in their buildings, musical instruments, elevators, and doors.
The sense of accomplishment felt by children, families, and educators was reinforced by the observational research results. There were significant pre/post gains on both CLASS scores and Project Approach Fidelity (PAF) ratings. Teachers improved interactions and learning opportunities with children on both measures. There was a strong positive relationship between CLASS scores and PAF ratings. Higher PAF ratings were found to predict higher CLASS scores.
To read further about the 5-year research project on coaching with CLASS Instructional Support and the Project Approach, follow this link to an article in Early Childhood Research & Practice. http://ecrp.uiuc.edu/v16n1/vartuli.html
Links to websites and on-line journals related to the Project Approach follow:
The blog was authored by the Coaching Community of Practice from Mid-America Head Start. Education support staff from The Y of Greater Kansas City, Kansas City Public Schools, The Family Conservancy, Independence School District, Operation Breakthrough, St. Mark’s United Inner City Services, and Plaza de Niños have been involved in coaching with CLASS Instructional Support Domain and the Project Approach with support from Drs. Catherine Wilson and Sue Vartuli for the past seven years.
In the wake of the widespread civil unrest after the killing of George Floyd, the national conversation about the inequities in the educational opportunities provided white students and students of color has been amplified. Due to racial and socioeconomic segregation, Black students, and other students of color, are more likely to attend poorly funded schools. EdBuild, a non-profit focused on fair and equitable school funding, reports that high poverty school districts that predominantly enroll children of color receive on average, $1,600 less per student than the national average. By their calculations, there is a $23,000,000,000 gap between funding for schools that primarily serve high poverty Black students and those that predominantly serve white students. Schools that predominantly serve high poverty white students, only receive $1440 less per student (EdBuild, 2019).
When I first learned about CLASS Group Coaching—a training for early childhood professionals about building relationships with children—I was more than a little interested. This, I thought. This is what teaching is all about. It seems to be an obvious concept, but once we dig deeper, we are able to identify the whys and hows of our interactions. CLASS Group Coaching allows us to identify the benefits of our classroom relationships with our students and helps us be intentional in our daily practices. It allows us to utilize each moment we have with our students to deepen our understanding of their perspectives and genuinely connect with them as people. It helps us see the world from their view and guide their learning in a way that is relevant to them.
Since the coronavirus has disrupted many of our in-person plans, you might be trying to figure out how you can transition in-person coaching to online coaching. Online coaching can open a number of doors for coaches and teachers that might not be an option in face-to-face work.
Even top athletes rely on the support of a coach to improve their game. Players need coaches to help identify their unique strengths and grow their talents while increasing their skills in areas of challenge. To do all this, coaches spend lots of time observing athletes while they practice—giving real-time feedback based on current efforts, breaking skills down as needed to cultivate mastery, and encouraging players to keep trying in pursuit of their goals.