Welcome to our newest blog series dedicated to the research we're reading and thinking about.
For our first post in this series, we’re looking at exclusionary disciplinary practices with new eyes as states are submitting their ESSA plans. The Every Student Succeeds Act requires states to discuss how they will help local education agencies reduce their overuse of exclusionary discipline practices. These are actions like suspensions or expulsions that send students out of classrooms. Not only do exclusionary discipline practices negatively affect school climate (something we care a lot about here at Teachstone!), evidence shows that students of color, particularly Black students, are disproportionately on the receiving end.
A recent study of MyTeachingPartner Secondary (MTP-S), however, shows promise in helping teachers reduce their use of disciplinary referrals. Earlier work had shown that middle- and high-school teachers participating in MTP-S coaching for one year eliminated the discipline gap between Black students and their peers for that year. The research team wanted to see if these changes lasted. Would teachers continue these equitable discipline practices? And, if so, what about MTP coaching was helping them do it?
Researchers used a randomized control design (RCT), generally considered to be the “gold standard” in education research, to divide 86 middle- and high-school teachers who volunteered into two groups. The control group continued with their usual professional development, and the intervention group agreed to participate in two years of coaching with MTP-S. Students were racially-ethnically diverse, and approximately 40% qualified for free and reduced-price lunch. Using CLASS to examine different dimensions of quality, data was collected on the classroom environment. Teachers participated in coaching for two years, and researchers tracked whether a student was or wasn’t given a disciplinary referral.
As predicted, in Year 2 of coaching, intervention teachers reduced their use of discipline referrals for all students, and there was no difference in referral rates for Black students and their peers. Then, something really exciting happened. In Year 3, the coaching stopped, but intervention teachers maintained their lower disciplinary referral levels. What’s more, there was still no racial discipline gap. Teachers who weren’t coached had no such change—they continued to disproportionately refer Black students. These changes in teacher behavior held even when controlling for other relevant background characteristics, such as teachers’ race or years of experience and whether or not students came from low-income families.
Researchers also examined CLASS scores to determine which dimensions of quality were associated with these changes in disciplinary practices. They found that Analysis and Inquiry, and, to a lesser extent, Teacher Sensitivity, were related to the likelihood of disciplinary referral. Teachers participating in coaching showed greater improvement in these areas than non-intervention teachers. Among intervention teachers, those who showed the most improvement were less likely to use disciplinary referrals. This corroborates prior research: when students are cognitively challenged and are asked to use meaningful problem-solving skills, they are more engaged and, in turn, perceived as more cooperative.
This study demonstrates the lasting efficacy of the MTP-S coaching program in improving both educational and disciplinary practices. These changes are essential for helping students succeed academically, since existing differences in how Black students and their peers are subjected to exclusionary discipline contribute to the academic opportunity gap. Even though changing teacher attitudes about discipline and educational equity are not the primary aim of MyTeachingPartner, this study shows the potential of using it as a pathway for reducing or eliminating racial disparities in exclusionary discipline.
Check out Teachstone’s MTP Coaching program and learn more about how this intensive professional development can impact the trajectory of all children’s lives, increasing opportunity for students by improving quality and equity in the classroom.
Citation: Gregory, A., Hafen, C.A., Ruzek, E., Mikami, A.Y., Allen, J.P., & Pianta, R.C. (2016). Closing the racial discipline gap in classrooms by changing teacher practice. School Psychology Review, 45(2), 171-191.
Whether you are writing your transition plan, preparing to return, or have already returned to in-person learning, you, like many other educational leaders, are likely facing many challenges and unknowns.
As you continue to craft and refine your plans, reflecting on the considerations below can help you more effectively build a blueprint for a successful reopening.
In the wake of the widespread civil unrest after the killing of George Floyd, the national conversation about the inequities in the educational opportunities provided white students and students of color has been amplified. Due to racial and socioeconomic segregation, Black students, and other students of color, are more likely to attend poorly funded schools. EdBuild, a non-profit focused on fair and equitable school funding, reports that high poverty school districts that predominantly enroll children of color receive on average, $1,600 less per student than the national average. By their calculations, there is a $23,000,000,000 gap between funding for schools that primarily serve high poverty Black students and those that predominantly serve white students. Schools that predominantly serve high poverty white students, only receive $1440 less per student (EdBuild, 2019).
I recognize and admit to having a chip on my shoulder about the field of early childhood education - and, at times, disbelief that others may not see that period of time as the power-packed years in our developmental timeline which can lay the groundwork and set the course for much of the rest of our lives.
Since the coronavirus has disrupted many of our in-person plans, you might be trying to figure out how you can transition in-person coaching to online coaching. Online coaching can open a number of doors for coaches and teachers that might not be an option in face-to-face work.