Student engagement is crucial for learning. Students who understand the rules and routines of the classroom and have something to do are less likely to engage in disruptive behavior, allowing the teacher to focus more on instruction. Engagement is only heightened when teachers make learning come alive. Warm, caring, and responsive teachers inspire students to focus on classroom activities, be it a read-aloud in an early childhood classroom or a writing activity in an upper grade classroom.
Research demonstrates a strong association between high levels of Classroom Organization and student engagement. Students in highly organized classrooms exhibit less time off task and more time focused on learning. If you think about the purpose of this domain (what teachers do to manage students’ time, attention, and behavior in the classroom), this makes sense. High levels of Classroom Organization are also associated with executive functioning skills, which help students better attend to the task at hand.
Classroom Organization is not the only dimension that affects student engagement. Emotional Support is also associated with student engagement and buffers the typical negative association between problem behavior and approaches to learning. That is, when Emotional Support is high, we see a decrease in problem behaviors, leading to higher levels of engagement.
Rimm-Kaufman, Barody, Larsen, Curby, and Abry (2015) examined the relationship between CLASS scores and student engagement during mathematics instruction in sixty-three 5th grade classrooms. They used three methods to study engagement: 1) a time-sampling observational system that indicated whether students were engaged or disengaged, 2) teacher report of engagement, and 3) student report on engagement. In addition, they measured four types of engagement: cognitive, emotional, behavioral, and social engagement.
Results of the study showed that students in classrooms with higher levels of Emotional Support reported greater cognitive, emotional, and social engagement, whereas students in classrooms with higher Classroom Organization reported greater levels of cognitive, emotional, and social engagement. Girls in classrooms with higher levels of Instructional Support reported higher social engagement, but this was not the case for the boys.
This research is exciting because it helps us understand in very tangible ways steps that teachers can take to increase student engagement. And students who are not engaged aren’t learning.
Rimm-Kaufman, S. E., Baroody, A., Larsen, R., Curby, T. W., & Abry, T. (2015). To what extent do teacher-student interaction quality and student gender contribute to fifth graders' engagement in mathematics instruction? Journal of Educational Psychology, 107, 170-185.
We’ve been talking about the achievement gap for an awfully long time. We’re all familiar with the term; it’s the disparity in academic achievement between different groups of students. We tend to hear about in relation to white students and students of color, but it can also be used to describe the difference between low-income students and their more advantaged peers.
The statistics around exclusionary discipline practices, like suspension or expulsion, are grim. Kids who get kicked out, especially repeatedly, are often already behind academically, become less engaged in school, and are monumentally more likely to drop out of high school. And while exclusionary discipline affects all students, it’s essential to keep in mind that children of color are suspended and expelled at rates disproportionate to their white peers.
We’ve written before about the discipline disparities between children of color and their white peers. (Since that post was published last year, the Department of Education has released updated - but not improved - statistics on the topic.) But discipline is not the only school arena where children from different backgrounds have different experiences. There’s also evidence that racial bias affects teachers’ academic and behavioral expectations, even in early childhood.
One of my biggest takeaways from the childcare calculator we talked about recently was how much it would cost to increase early childhood educators’ wages. It wasn’t shocking—if you’re looking to get some laughs, ask any teacher you know if they’re in education to make big money—but it was a disappointing reminder of just how little we pay those who are shaping our future. The recently-released 2018 Early Childhood Workforce Index gives us some specifics around compensation in early childhood education and care.